The following thematic sessions have been approved:

1 Busting disciplinary silos ▶
Full title: Busting disciplinary silos to advance biological control within global agri-food systems

Chairs: Yanhui Lu, Kris Wyckhuys, Mauricio Gonzalez-Chang

To mitigate the externalities of conventional agriculture and to help keep global food systems within environmental limits, far-reaching ‘transformative’ change is needed. Such transformation can be enabled through applied ecology or entomology, released through social science and brought about hand-in-hand with farmers, consumers and myriad other value chain actors. Yet, fragmented research agendas, pest-centric foci and so-called disciplinary ‘silos’ all too often prevent effective, integrative action. Instead, inter-disciplinary ‘systems approaches’ should be actively pursued as a guiding premise for sustainable pest management and resilient agri-food systems. This scientific session will depart from the presentation of a novel “spiral approach” - an explicit outcome-oriented pathway to strategize biological control science as to deliver concrete agro-ecological outcomes at the farm level (González-Chang et al., 2020). Next, a number of case studies will be presented in which several steps along this “spiral pathway” are simultaneously addressed or in which multiple scientific disciplines are tactically connected to enable ‘transformative’ change. Work from China and Southeast Asia will reveal how interdisciplinary perspectives can be effectively employed to transform pest management in cotton and smallholder rice systems. Scientists from Wageningen University will describe how a concurrent assessment of different ecosystem services in pear agro-landscapes can help devise biological control strategies that equally bolster fruit pollination. Other researchers will showcase the potential of emerging research fields such as ‘culturomics’, ‘Big Data science’ and ‘iEcology’ to shine new light on biological control science, monitor public awareness, enhance farmer uptake and ultimately boost success of future research endeavors. Overall, this session is intended to resonate with researchers from a broad range of scientific disciplines and hopefully will plant the seed for exciting interdisciplinary work and innovative public-private partnerships. Gonzalez-Chang et al., 2020. Understanding the pathways from biodiversity to agro-ecological outcomes: a new, interactive approach. Unspecified, in press.
2 Genetic improvement of biological control agents ▶
Full title: Genetic improvement of natural enemies: an urgent breakthrough in the progress of biological control

Chairs: Alberto Urbaneja, Pablo Bielza

Integrated pest management (IPM) based on arthropod biological control agents (BCAs) has definitely succeeded on many crops, especially crops grown under greenhouse conditions. However, there are serious limitations in the adoption of biological control in some crops, areas and periods of the year. There are constraints to the establishment and success of biological control protocols due to environmental conditions (low or high temperatures, low humidity), adaptation to crops (tomato, cucumber, ornamentals), compatibility with pesticides, etc. There is not always new species of BCAs that can perform better. In this way, a real possibility of progress in biological control is the genetic improvement of natural enemies, responding to the challenges posed. As successfully achieved in the development of agriculture with plant varieties and animal breeds, the artificial selection of BCAs with certain traits can contribute decisively to a greater success of biological control. Similarly, the selection of lines, strains or isolates of entomopathogenic bacteria or fungi is a common practice in the development of biopesticides. Genetic improvement of BCAs has been approached for a long time, and some advances have been made in the past, but with little or no implementation in the field. The selection of lines better adapted to agricultural environments, or to environmental conditions and prey/hosts outside their natural range, could achieve the success of species of natural enemies that today are not sufficiently effective. Additionally, species already successfully implemented can be selected for certain traits that improve their performance (higher fecundity, longevity, predation) or that allow them to adapt to certain agrosystems in which they have not yet been implemented (crops such as tomatoes, plants without pollen, use of pesticides against secondary pests, alternative food).
3 Climate change and biological control ▶
Full title: Biological Control under changing climates: challenges and prospects

Chairs: Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Chris Weldon

To evaluate the challenges and opportunities presented by climate change in the biological control of insects and plants
4 Biological control in Africa ▶
Full title: Biological control in African smallholder production systems

Chairs: Thomas Dubois, Samira A. Mohamed

In Africa, agricultural production is largely based on smallholder systems. Such systems are highly vulnerable to pest and disease constraints coupled with little resources for their effective management. Further, the fragile biosecurity infrastructure of Africa and undertrained phytosanitary personnel has contributed to increasing frequency of catastrophic emergence of invasive pests such as Tuta absoluta, Schistocerca gregaria and Spodoptera frigiperda, further aggravating the situation. Biological control represents an ideal control option within the context of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach, and efforts on the continent have already contributed significantly to the management of agricultural pests although with its share of challenges for scaling, especially in the context of smallholder systems. It is paramount that biological control interventions are tuned towards the situation in Africa, and cater for smallholder and low-input systems. A comprehensive review of the successes and challenges is critical to chart out an effective roadmap for ongoing and future biological control efforts to benefit smallholders and ensure food security in Africa. The goal of this session is to highlight research-for-development efforts and lessons learnt of classical, augmentative and conservation biological control within an Africa-specific context, using case studies of crop and horticultural pests.
5 Regulatory developments and challenges ▶
Full title: Regulatory oversight of non-native biological control agents: Developments and challenges

Chairs: Matthew Everatt

While generally safe, there are examples of non-native biological control agents that have caused unintended negative impacts, such as the predation and parasitism of non-target prey. Systems of regulation have therefore been established in many countries to ensure that only environmentally safe agents are released. This session will raise awareness of these regulatory systems for invertebrate and microbial agents, explore novel developments, and introduce the challenges for regulators and applicants. One of the major hurdles for biological control regulation is the lack of harmonisation and clarity across different countries. As a result, introducing agents in different countries can be more costly and time consuming for applicants, but can also mean the risk of introducing damaging agents is greater if regulations are not adequate in some countries. This is increasingly being recognised, and work is being carried out regionally, as well as within individual countries, to address this issue. One of the keys to solving this issue, as well as other regulatory issues, is a dialogue between regulators, researchers and industry as to their respective needs. And by having a session in an international forum, such as the Second International Congress of Biological Control, these needs can be considered at a global level, helping to effect change and increase the opportunities to introduce effective and safe biological control agents.
6 Molecular tools for Biological Control ▶
Full title: Novel molecular tools for IPM and Biological Control

Chairs: Steve Naranjo, Joerg Romeis

Controlling arthropod crop pests and vectors of disease in an effective, sustainable and environmentally sound fashion continues to be a challenge. Recent molecular-based developments provide a number of new opportunities for managing arthropod pest populations. This includes genetic engineering of arthropods to introduce detrimental gene drives or sterility, and the genetic manipulation of natural enemies such as fungi and endosymbiotic bacteria to make them more effective for control of crop and human health pests. The recently discovered process of RNA interference has a great potential to provide very species-specific tools that could be applied in planta or as sprays and the first GE plant based on RNAi has just been approved in the USA. Much like Bt crops these RNAi based approaches offer the advantage of highly specific pest control that can enable biological control by reducing or removing the need for broader spectrum insecticides in the system. The proposed session would provide insight into the various novel genetic tools currently being developed and applied and further discuss the opportunities and existing constraints for using these more broadly to enhance biological pest control. The session will bring together top-experts in their respective fields from the USA and Europe.
7 Novel Trichoderma applications ▶
Full title: Trichoderma beyond just cell wall degrading enzymes

Chairs: Enrique Monte, María E. Morán-Diez

A huge amount of Trichoderma strains is being applied in plant protection around the world. Most of them are used and commercialized because of their biocontrol activity against plant pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and even nematodes. However, the versatility of Trichoderma is astonishing since strains from several species have evolved from a genetic predisposition towards mycotrophy to colonize roots and adopt an endophytic lifestyle. As a result, other plant beneficial effects of Trichoderma began to emerge. This is the case of their abilities to promote plant growth, to elicit plant defenses against pathogen attack and environmental stress, the attraction of pest natural enemies and their use in the improvement or maintenance of soil productivity. In the present Session we want to further our knowledge of how: i) Trichoderma release VOCs and help plants to defend themselves against insect attacks and attract parasitoids. ii) Trichoderma capture mycoviruses from other fungi and can potentially spread hypovirulence to plant pathogens. iii) Trichoderma opportunism and competitiveness in the rhizosphere can be explained by the amazing high quality of their chaperones. iv) Trichoderma biocontrol effects are heritable and subjected to epigenetic control though miRNAs. v) Trichoderma sesquiterpene production or can the biocontrol ability be a genomic bug?
8 Biological control of cactus pests and pest cacti ▶
Full title: Biological control for the protection of cactus crops and the control of invasive alien Cactaceae

Chairs: Iain Paterson, Laura Varone

In the Americas, where the Cactaceae are indigenous, it is a culturally and economically important plant family. Cacti are regarded as keystone species in natural ecosystems, many are rare and protected, and some are grown on a large scale as commercially important agricultural crops. Cactaceous crops have also become important in arid climates outside of the indigenous distribution of the family, where they provide essential nutrients in areas where other food crop species are difficult or impossible to grow. Invasive alien insects are serious agricultural pests to cactus crops all over the world, and are a threat to indigenous cactus species in the Americas. Some of the cactus species have also become problematic invasive alien plants, resulting in detrimental impacts to indigenous biodiversity and agricultural productivity. Biological control is utilized for the control of invasive alien cactus species, as well as the control of insect pests of commercially and environmentally important cactus species. In some cases, an herbivorous insect is regarded as a biological control agent in some contexts, and as a pest in others. The aim of this symposium is to share recent developments, successes and constraints, from the different biological control disciplines involved in the control of cactus pests and pest cacti. This may help resolve some of the conflicts of interest between those using biological control to protect cacti, and those using biological control to control cacti. The biological control disciplines include classical biological control of environmental insect pests, augmentative control of insect pests in an agricultural setting, and classical biological control of invasive alien plants.
9 Requirements for biological control ▶
Full title: In-field and off-field requirements for biological control - a dialogue

Chairs: Jana Collatz , Aurélie Ferrer

Biological control agents do not only need their target host or prey to thrive but they are dependent on other factors such as a suitable microclimate, shelter from adverse conditions, sugar sources and alternative hosts. The provision of semi-natural infrastructures (e.g. flower strips, hedges, beetle banks) in the surroundings of the field, can therefore enhance the recruitment of biological control agents and support larger populations of them. However, higher numbers of natural enemies in the surroundings of the field do not necessarily result in higher presence and biocontrol function within the field and often activity of natural enemies diminishes rapidly from the border to the center of the field. The spatial design of semi-natural elements as well as the habitat conditions within the field may therefore be of major importance to ensure an early appearance and an increased activity of biocontrol agents on the crop without fostering the pest itself. To implement efficient and economically relevant measures for plant protection at the field and/or farm scale, it is therefore important to understand the effects on natural enemies from the scale and spatial arrangement of resource habitats, the impact of agricultural pratices within the field and the potential interaction between off-crop and in-crop practices. In our session, we would like to bring together researchers working on aspects of resource/habitat provision at different spatial scales from in-field to field margins and surrounding landscape. We hope that this will stimulate a lively discussion between practitioners and ecologists and will help to strengthen the bridge between in-field and off field measures.
10 Botanicals for biocontrol ▶
Full title: Botanicals for biocontrol in agriculture and animal husbandry

Chairs: Annegret Schmitt , Lucius Tamm

Botanicals are currently receiving increasing attention as possible new plant protection products (PPPs) as well as as products for an animal cure. This is of high importance in organic farming and also in integrated farming as the ongoing omission of registered chemical PPPs results in a shortcut in suitable alternatives. Furthermore, farmers in both, organic and integrated farming need to apply sustainable strategies including new PPPs with different modes of action in order to reduce resistance build-up in plant pathogens. Here, botanicals can play an important role. In parallel, in organic animal husbandry, alternatives to so far chemical treatments are sought. Biocontrol products including botanicals could serve as substitutes for antibiotic use also in conventional animal husbandry. This together with the increasing consumer demand for biocontrol in agricultural crops and in animal production makes the development of botanicals as biocontrol products an increasingly important topic. Before the market introduction, botanicals need to undergo a registration process. This step, however, is often a bottleneck, as the current registration process is mostly designed for single-molecule synthetic chemicals, while botanicals comprise a complex mixture of ingredients. Therefore, the special case of botanicals needs to be further discussed. The goal of the session is to give an insight into the potential of new botanicals for use in agriculture and animal husbandry, by presenting examples for most important diseases. We will present recent outcomes from research undertaken in the different fields, mainly based on results from the currently ongoing EU-funded project RELACS and also beyond. Reflections on the registration issue will round-up the session. The session comprises the following talks: - Botanicals for reduction of copper use against fungal plant pathogens (Annegret Schmitt, JKI, Germany) - Botanicals for reduction of mineral oils for insect control (Ilaria Pertot, FEM, Italy) - Botanicals for mastitis control in dairy cows (Olivia Tavares, ITAB, France) - Botanicals for anthelmint control in small ruminants (Spiridoula Athanasiadou, SRUC, United Kingdom) - Registration of botanicals - current bottlenecks and future needs (Lucius Tamm, FiBL, Switzerland)
11 Risk analysis and decision making ▶
Full title: New approaches to risk analysis and decision making in biocontrol

Chairs: Greg Lefoe, Jackie Steel

Risk assessment and risk analysis is used to determine whether a biocontrol agent is suitable to release for the control of an invasive organism. It is a field that is evolving within a context of improved technology, cross-disciplinary collaboration, and regulatory processes that change over jurisdiction and time. Risk assessment is supported by a range of experimental methods and decision support tools that have been developed to minimise the chance that an agent will damage non-target organisms and to maximise the chance that a suitable agent will be released. Reporting of these results needs to provide robust statistical analysis, suitable for peer-reviewed publication, transparency and reproducibility to enable consideration of risks across more than one jurisdiction, and communication of the results of risk analysis to non-science regulators charged with deciding whether an agent should be released or not.\r\nNew tools for risk assessment and analysis may be developed specifically to aid the communication of risk or more generally to assess risk in more robust ways. Recently new tools have derived from cross-over between disciplines in biology such as demographic modelling and chemical ecology, and lessons from related fields such as risk management and decision analysis.\r\nThe goal of the session will be to highlight the new tools, models, frameworks, statistical approaches etc. that scientists have developed to aid research and communication of the risk analysis process involved in releasing biological control agents (insect, pathogen, vertebrate) for the control of invasive species. \r\nWe are particularly interested in the scientist’s role in supporting transparent, reproducible and defensible decisions about agent introduction.\r\nThe following list of people have recently published papers that are applicable to this topic but have not yet been approached to participate:
12 Classical biological control ▶
Full title: Classical biological control of new and old arthropod pests

Chairs: Alejandro Tena, Antonio Biondi

The aim of the session is to present the last results obtained in some of the main ongoing classical biological control programs of arthropod pests in the world: mealybugs, stinck bugs, Drosophila suzukii, fruit flies, disease vectors
13 Biocontrol in the NGS Era ▶
Full title: Biological Control in the Next-Generation DNA Sequencing Era

Chairs: Debora Pires Paula

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) based-methods have been contributing tremendously to advances in many of the Life Sciences, but their application in biological control research has been minimal, in part due to their complexity and cost. We are in the genomic data era during which the way research is conducted in entomology, ecology, evolution, and consequently biological control, is being and will inevitably be rethought to integrate holistically these NGS methods to answer some conceptual scientific questions in biological control. This session aims to bridge NGS and biological control through exploring different ways biological control research has being enriched by NGS data.
14 Ecological interactions among biocontrol agents ▶
Full title: Ecological interactions among biocontrol agents

Chairs: Paul Ode, Paul Abram

Most plant and insect pests are attacked by multiple species of natural enemies. Weeds are typically consumed by more than one species of herbivore and insect herbivores, in turn, are attacked by more than one species of parasitoid and/or predator. Within a trophic level, interactions among herbivores or consumers may range from competition (when competing species degrade the quantity or quality of the resource for the other species) to facilitation (if two or more species enhance the quality or quantity of resource for other species) depending on strength and direction of these interactions. Furthermore, biocontrol agents may interact with one another indirectly via their interactions with lower (e.g., plants) or higher trophic (e.g., hyperparasitoids, higher level predators) levels in a variety of well-known ecological interactions such as apparent competition and apparent predation. While the potential for biological control agents (of either weeds or insects) to interact with one another is likely ubiquitous, we know surprisingly little about how multiple biocontrol agents within a given system interact or how this affects ultimate biological control outcomes (e.g., reduction in pest populations, increases in crop yields). Yet, such information is critical if we are to understand the rationale and merits of releasing single (minimizing non-target effects) or multiple (maximizing successful pest control) biocontrol agents. This session will consist of speakers of have conducted important work in the area of ecological interactions among insect herbivores or insect predators/parasitoids and their implications for the successful implementation of biological control programs. It will also cover the emerging practice of applying network analysis to understanding ecological interactions in biological control systems.
15 Challenges for zoophytophagous predators ▶
Full title: Zoophytophagous predators: still an exciting challenge to exploit


In recent years the use of zoophytophagous predators has succeeded in many crops due to their ability to effectively feed on a wide range of pests. Apart from their voracious entomophagy, these predators, are able to also feed on the plant. Their phytophagy allows zoophytophagous predators to establish earlier in the crop and maintain their populations longer in periods of prey scarcity. The awe-inspiring success achieved by zoophytophagous predators in different agricultural systems so far has motivated research on this group of natural enemies that has been significantly promoted in recent years. In this symposium, the latest research advances around this important group of biological control agents will be presented and discussed. Research lines to be included in the symposium are listed below: • Survey and selection of new species of zoophytophagous predators for developing new pest management programs. • Genetic selection of new strains of zoophytophagous predators with improved biological traits. • New management strategies for zoophytophagous predators to maximize efficacy and/or minimize plant damage. • Taking advantage of the plant's defensive responses induced by the phytophagy of zoophytophagous predators. • Interactions between zoophytophagous predators and plant diseases/beneficial microbes. • Intraguild interactions in which zoophytophagous predators are involved. • Combined use of zoophytophagous predators and biorational plant protection products.
16 Semiochemistry applied to biological control ▶
Full title: Semiochemistry applied to biological control: using the language of natural enemies

Chairs: Joe M. Kaser, Donald C. Weber

Insects and other types of natural enemies sense and emit semiochemicals to locate, select, consume, and suppress their hosts and prey. This session will address the diverse and novel ways in which the interaction of chemical ecology and biological control has served to enhance knowledge of natural enemies and efficacy of biological control by arthropods, nematodes, and pathogens against animal and plant pests. The topics in this symposium will cover host, parasitoid, predator, and plant-produced semiochemicals in the context of introduction (classical), augmentative, and conservation biological control, including of above- and below-ground pest herbivores and weeds targeted by nematodes and other pathogens, arthropod predators, parasitoids, and herbivores. Senior and junior researchers including postdocs and graduate students will be included from several different countries and backgrounds.
17 Multi-species interactions in biocontrol ▶
Full title: Interactions among natural enemies and their effects on biological control

Chairs: David Andow, Debora Pires Paula, Enric Frago

Biological control typically focuses on the role of single biological control agents. There is a rich theory supporting this focus on single species, which suggests that the single agent that can persist at the lowest pest density will be the most effective biological control agent. Pest species, however, are often exposed to multiple natural enemies, and there is rich empirical evidence indicating that higher natural enemy diversity is associated with greater pest suppression. The mechanisms behind this effect have been largely debated. Even if multiple natural enemy species can partition their niches to better suppress herbivore populations, this effect can be dampened when antagonistic interactions like intraguild predation or hyperparasitism dominate. There are many elements capable of modulating these opposing forces. On a smaller scale these may include the diversity of plants crops are embedded within, or abiotic conditions, whereas at the landscape level they may include the diversity of the habitats that surround crops or their fragmentation. This session will focus on the interactions of multiple species/ strains of natural enemies to reveal some properties of these complex systems that might underlie how multiple agents can enhance or reduce biological control.
18 Multi-trophic interactions and host selection ▶
Full title: Multi-trophic interactions and effects on biocontrol agent host selection

Chairs: Mike Cripps, Michael Rostás

The session will focus on host selection and acceptance by biocontrol agents and how this can be altered through multi-trophic interactions. Target hosts (weeds, pests, or pathogens) and the biocontrol agents deployed (herbivores, parasitoids, and microbials) are colonised by a plethora of organisms that range from mutualistic to parasitic. While many such colonisers are opportunistic, or seemingly benign, they may alter the preference hierarchies of biocontrol agents, or the acceptability of a host through changes in visual cues, volatiles profiles, and chemotactical processes. This session will draw on examples from weed, insect, and microbial biocontrol, and offer insights into the variability of biocontrol management interventions due to multi-trophic effects on the host selection process.
19 Biocontrol in Latin America ▶
Full title: Augmentative and conservation biological control in Latin America: experiences for fruit and vegetable crops

Chairs: Margarita Rocca, Maria R. Manzano, Nancy Greco, Lessando Gontijo, Bruno Zachrisson

In Latin America, the most frequently method for pest control involves the regular use of broad spectrum insecticides, and the development of biological control, is important for more sustainable crop production. The aim of this presentation is to show the most significant results currently available to advance in biological control programs for some vegetable and fruit crops in Argentina, Colombia and Panama. We summarize the knowledge of the most efficient agents for augmentative biological control to supress whiteflies, moths, aphids, mites and thrips. However, because of the high biodiversity of natural enemies in the neotropical region we show progress in conservation biological control programs to improve existing levels of pest suppression either through habitat manipulation or through the use of selective insecticides that do not harm natural enemies. We present several aspects, such as natural enemies use the plant as a resource for food and oviposition, their dispersion in front of the scarcity of main and alternative resources, the importance of the surrounding natural vegetation, the biological characteristics of local genetic lines and the intraguild interactions. Because of Coccinelidae are important predators of aphids, we will present the plant-aphid-Coccinelidae system as a model to show networks for interactions inside the crop and its surrounding vegetation. Furthemore, as antagonistic interactions can affect pest suppression we studied the system aphidophagous coccinellids- sweet pepper crop, and we discuss the results in relation to cannibalism and intraguild predation, the effect of larval traces to deter conspecific and heterospecific, the temporal and spatial coexistence of these species and the effect of interference interactions on the biological control of aphids.
20 Biological control for Planetary Health ▶
Full title: Delivering on a promise: biological control for Planetary Health

Chairs: Kris Wyckhuys, Sacha Roudine

Over the past year, an unfortunate sequence of ‘Planetary Health’ emergencies have accentuated how the environmental damage - inflicted by swelling global populations and imprudent management of natural resource - has effectively halted the global economy. The way humanity interacts with Nature causes problems that can no longer be ignored, and current economic and agro-production models highlight the limits to the carrying capacity of the Earth (Arrow et al., 1995). Now more than ever, ‘nature-based’ solutions and ecologically-centered farming approaches should be devised, prioritized and actively promoted to preserve of our Planet and its inhabitants. In this scientific session, we will draw on a set of compelling case studies to illustrate a) how anthropogenic drivers aggravate threats to human, animal and environmental health, and b) how biological control constitutes a tailor-made solution to defuse those threats. More specifically, we will discuss how an over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in present-day agriculture compromises food safety and poses clear hazards to human health, while triggering the build-up of disease-carrying vector populations, e.g., schistosomiasis-transmitting fresh-water snails, livestock pests or nuisance mosquitoes. Session participants will discuss how invasive pests impact livestock production throughout the developing world or how the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti disrupted food supply, caused hardship and deepened poverty across sub-Saharan Africa. Conversely, we celebrate the net positive outcomes of biological control for social capital, environmental preservation and human health. Talks from Italy and Brazil will unveil how biological control (with introduced, host-specific ‘samurai’ wasps) can curb pesticide use in small fruits, or how Wolbachia bacteria can be used to alleviate mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever. Our session will end with a coverage of the newly launched SPRINT program, a Europe-wide effort in which toxicologists, ecologists and medical personnel jointly assess the health risks posed by pesticides for humans, animals, plants and soil life. This program can potentially foment lasting transitions towards sustainable plant protection and generate unmatched opportunities for biological control. Overall, by illuminating the human and social livelihood outcomes of biological control and by quantifying its myriad contributions to ‘Planetary Health’, we hope that our session will help build broader societal awareness, pursue policy change and advance the uptake of this practice across the globe.

Arrow, K. et al. (1995) Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Ecological Economics 15(2), 91-95.\r\nSPRINT - https://resource.wur.nl/en/show/Integral-research-on-the-effects-of-pesticides-.htm*

This scientific session will eventually be joined by CABI's Urs Schaffner who will cover weed biological control
21 Syrphids as pest controllers and pollinators ▶
Full title: Concurrent pest control and pollination by aphidophagous hoverflies

Chairs: Apostolos Pekas, Tanya Latty, Karl Wotton

Biological pest control and pollination are vital ecosystem services provided by insects in natural and managed ecosystems. Usually, they are studied is isolation given that each ecosystem service is provided by different guilds of arthropods. Hoverflies are an exception as larvae of many aphidophagous species prey upon agriculturally important aphid pests, while the adults feed on floral nectar and pollen and can be efficient pollinators of many plant species including economically important agricultural crops. While this is widely known, the concurrent provisioning of pest control and pollination by aphidophagous hoverflies remains largely unexplored. Crucially, hoverfly numbers, despite variation among years, are stable over time while other numbers of other beneficial insects providing essential ecosystems services, especially pollinators, are declining. The aim of this session is to update knowledge, identify research gaps and opportunities regarding the concurrent provisioning of ecosystem services by aphidophagous hoverflies. Speakers from different parts of the world will provide insights from different perspectives, such as, migration ecology, conservation and augmentative biological control and pollination ecology. This interdisciplinary approach will shed light into this largely overlooked concurrent provisioning of pest control and pollination by hoverflies. The session outcomes will be of practical relevance for the management of pest control and pollination in natural and managed ecosystems.
22 Management of invasive pest by South-South Cooperation ▶
Full title: Management of invasive pest by South-South Cooperation

Chairs: Malvika Chaudhary, Gopalsamy Sivakumar, Yelitza Colmenarez

The goal of the session / panel *: The economic losses in agricultural production due to the invasion of alien species is primarily due to intensification of trade, increase in international travels and climate change. It has been seen in the recent past that many pests like Spodoptera frugiperda and Tuta absoluta have invaded Asian countries and likewise pest like Drosophila suzukii and Red palm mite have been accidentally introduced in the Americas from Asia. In this scenario is important to collaborate with the region of origin of the introduced pest, looking forward to identifying and import the natural enemies attacking the pest, get to know the control practices used, as part of the establishment of control methods. Along with exchange of knowledge and material it is also important to enable an environment that may support and establish these exchanges within a suitable timeframe. In this connection a good network of stakeholders within and outside the region will help in understanding cost effective methods for establishing the legal status and making them available suitably. There has to be effective communication in place to bring about change in knowledge, practice and attitude of the main beneficiaries ie producers. Considering the approach needs to be customized as per the culture and background the adaptation from one robust global approach would be much helpful in promoting the utilization of the novel products. Role of private sector is significant for leveraging sustainability and helping them to overcome some prevailing challenges will lead to the success of entire effort.
24 Acarine biological control? ▶
Full title: Acarine biological control: what are the next steps?

Chairs: Marcus Duarte, Dominiek Vangansbeke

Phytoseiid predatory mites have become a crucial cornerstone in biological control programs in protected cultivation worldwide. This session will focus on how we can further expand the scope of mites as biological control agents. The present session will focus on the role of acarine biological control agents in future agriculture and associated research gaps. Therefore, we will focus on 1) biocontrol using soil predatory mites, 2) how you could use predatory mites on non-mite-friendly plants and 3) climate change. Firstly, the ecology and potential application of soil predatory mites is heavily understudied, whereas biodiversity in a soil environment is significantly higher. There is a wide range of potential that could be used not only for soil pest, but also for plant inhabitant pest that have part of their cycle in the soil. Conventionally, plant breeders tend to focus on crop yield and pest and/or pathogen resistance. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in breeding towards favoring predators, which cannot thrive on certain crop plants. One such example is tomato, where phytoseiids cannot establish due to the presence of glandular trichomes. Finally, climate change is a severe threat to global food security. Can predatory mites deal with more pronounced heatwaves and drought periods?
25 Biological control worldwide ▶
Full title: Worldwide recent successes in biological control, effectivity, economics and public perception

Chairs: Peter Mason, Donald C. Weber

Exploit and discuss in our days the state of affairs of practical biological control in the different regions as South America, Oceania, Indo-Pacific, Eurasia, Africa, and North America, including also broader topics such as challenges in the regulatory process, public perceptions, uptake, and future directions in the role of biological control as a basis for IPM, biological control as conservation science, biological control as intentional invasions. Also we are showing the areas in hectares of using biological control strategy for the pests worldwide. (This symposium will take at least ½ days).
26 Challenge of increased demand of biocontrol agents Quantity and quality augmentative BC agent ▶
Full title: Quantity AND quality: Responding to the challenge of increased demand of biocontrol agents

Chairs: Maria Luisa Dindo, Rose Buitenhuis

The session will deal with the following topics/goals: 1) Scale up mass rearing through new techniques, use of modern tools (genetics, artificial diet, automation), while maintaining a consistent quality 2) Global demand vs local production, from multinational insectaries to in-house production of biocontrol agents by growers. Setting up biocontrol programs in countries with import restrictions for foreign BCAs 3) Solutions for problems occurring in the rearing of biocontrol agents and their hosts/preys, e.g. cannibalism
23a Free Session A ▶
Full title: Free Session A


23b Free Session B ▶
Full title: Free Session B